Analyte Names and Structures:
2,4 Dinitrophenol
2_4_Dinitrophenol.jpg
Chemical Names:
1-Hydroxy-2,4-Dinitrobenzene

Other Names:

Aldifen, Chemox Pe, 2,4-Dinitrofenol, Dinitrofenolo, 2,4-Dinitrophenol,Dinitrophenol, 2,4-, Alpha-Dinitrophenol, 2,4-Dnp, Fenoxyl Carbon N, 1-Hydroxy-2,4-Dinitrobenzene, Maroxol-50, Nitro Kleenup, Nsc 1532, Phenol, 2,4-Dinitro-, Phenol, Alpha-Dinitro-, Rcra Waste Number P048, Solfo Black 2b Supra, Solfo Black B, Solfo Black Bb, Solfo Black G, Solfo Black Sb, Tertrosulphur Black Pb, Tertrosulphur Pbr. (2)


Relevant Physicochemical Data:
Formula: C6H4N2O5
MW: 184.11
MP: 112-114 ºC (1)
BP: Sublimes (1)
pKa : 4.09 (2)
CAS: 51-28-5
NIOSH RTECS: SL2800000


General Relevancy:
“Diet Aid” sold on the internet. Used as a fungicide, wood preservative and limited use as a pesticide. It has also been used as a precursor substance for explosives. (3, 4)

Pharmacokinetics (TDM):



Proper Specimen Types:
Occupational Exposure Monitoring: Blood, Urine.
Emergency Toxicology: Blood, Urine.

Forensic investigations: All

Analyte(s) to be Determined:
2,4-Dinitrophenol
2-Amino-4-Nitrophenol

Methods of Analysis:



Measurable Range (Upper/Lower Detection Limits):


Critical Concentrations:
Blood concentrations in exposed individuals should not exceed 10 µg/g (~ 10 µg/mL). Note: The method of determining the 2,4-DNP concentrations in this reference was colorimetric. As such, a specific method for 2,4-Dinitrophenol should have an LOQ of approximately 1.0 µg/mL for both analytes. (5)

Blood concentration of 2,4-DNP in an accidental overdose was 36.14 µg/mL (serum level 29.68 µg/mL) (6)


Potential Interfering Compounds:


Stability Data:

Unknown.

Interpretative Comment(s):


References:

1. S. Budavari, The Merck index : an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 12th ed. 1996, Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck. 1 v. (various pagings).

2. Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB), 2,4-dinitrophenol, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov, 2002

3. R.E. Gosselin, R.P. Smith, and H.C. Hodge, Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. 1984, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. III-156-159.

4. W.J. Hayes and E.R. Laws, Handbook of pesticide toxicology. 1991, San Diego: Academic Press. 3 v. (xxi, 1576 ).

5. R.H. Dreisbach and W.O. Robertson, Handbook of poisoning : prevention, diagnosis & treatment. 12th ed. 1987, Norwalk, Conn.: Appleton & Lange. 589.

6. E.J. Miranda and B.K. Logan. Reported Death by Ingestion of 2,4-Dinitrophenol. Presented at the Society of Forensic Toxicologists Annual Meeting. 2002. Dearborn, Michigan.


General Questions:
1.
What is the application of the test?
Occupational exposure monitoring
Forensic Investigation(s).

2.
Who would use this application and why?
Forensic Investigators: To determine a cause of illness or death.
Occupational health workers: As part of medical surveillance.

3. Is testing currently available / new to the industry by some other means?
Testing is currently available

4. What are the features / benefits of this test to the user?
Occupational: The ability to monitor employees exposed to this compound.
Forensic: This compound was once sold as a diet aid and can still be purchased via the internet.

5. What is the scientific significance of this test?

Allows for specific identification of designated analytes as opposed to other, less specific methods.